The glucopy-glurestore system deployment scripts
Copyright (c) 2006, 2008, 2012 Dimitri Marinakis, John Poulakis
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
The back-up script
The RAID back-up script
The restore script
The RAID restore script
Persistent device attributes – MAC addresses
Persistent device attributes – storage media identifiers
Initial RAM disk (initrd) and cpio
When you need to make more than one copy of your installed and fine-tuned system in less than a lifetime, these scripts are for you. We have used them to back-up, clone, and individualize slightly complex working systems, including systems with disk arrays (RAID). Restoration from compressed data taking up a 700Mb CD or a 2Gb DVD takes about ten minutes (current era computers).
20061203 – First release: tlgu.carmen.gr
20061223 – EOF correction
20080102 – GRUB syntax correction, distribution-specific considerations
20120329 – RAID backup – restore, additional considerations
Spiros Georgaras (sngeorgaras, otenet gr) for reviewing the scripts and for providing useful checks.
All authors and contributors to the utilities listed below.
(use man command or info command to find out more)
it that dd was originally cc (convert and copy) and was renamed to dd
as cc stood for c compiler.
It has always been device dump or disk dump for me...
The modularized GRand Unified Bootloader is used in the systems supported by the copy/restore scripts.
An interactive mode allows you options like finding the partitions where the boot loader files reside:
This will return something like root(hd0,1) which means that grub's root directory was found in the first hdd, second partition.
As long as you have it running, you may then set up the system to boot:
The setup line indicates where the boot loader will reside (here in the first disk's Master Boot Record - MBR) and the quit command will flush the information to disk.
To boot from interactive mode you must indicate the location of the GNU/Linux system (relative to the hard disk drive used for booting) and the root directory using real device names. For example:
kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda2 [additional kernel parameters] initrd /initrd boot
A comprehensive disk partitioner with sector save (-O), dump (-d) and restore options.
The venerable tape archive command can be used to easily create compressed or uncompressed archives in forms too numerous to mention here. For added peace of mind compute the md5sum of the resulting “tarballs” and compare them to the respective files stored on the backup medium (CD/DVD).
Multiple Device (MD) administration, used for systems implementing software RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks).
Computes a file's checksum or "fingerprint".
User-space dynamic device management.
Archiving utility, also used in making initial RAM disk (initrd) images.
cdrecord (now wodim - write data to optical disk media)
These utilities can be used to make and burn an ISO CD, optionally including bootable images (-b).
Used as a front end to mkisofs to make and burn DVD-RW and DVD-RAM images.
BE CAREFUL! THESE ARE EXAMPLE SCRIPTS AND WILL DEFINITELY NEED ADAPTATION!
TEST USING SAMPLE DATA/HARDWARE BEFORE ACTUAL DEPLOYMENT!
The usual disclaimer about misconfiguring your system beyond repair or oblueterating your work applies: Don't blame it on us. Do one thing at a time. Make sure you understand the steps involved by reading the respective command manuals. Write to tlgu, carmen gr, in case this document contains inaccuracies, errors or if you have some information that others can benefit from.
The need arose (a rose... a rose!) to install a specific GNU/Linux configuration on a number of identical computer boxes with (almost) blank, unformatted, disks. One option was to blindly clone the disks using dd but this would need a significant amount of time, even with a large block size, indeed unjustified, as the sub-Tb disks were mostly empty. Another drawback is that disks should be removed and re-installed. Even with “no-tools” boxes this is an added inconvenience and involves a risk of damaging the hardware. Last, but not least, added complexity, introduced with more recent operating system distributions, necessitated system-specific adjustments following the “disk cloning” operation.
We eventually settled on backing-up directories from the GNU/Linux tree by making a compressed tar ball (tape archive), copying it onto a CD/DVD and then expanding it onto freshly-formatted partitions. Which means: boot a compact working system on the target machine, clone partitioning information, format selected partitions, untar-uncompress backed-up information, make system bootable and, optionally, run any required customization scripts; this has lately become mandatory, as current distributions include persistent device naming introduced with udev, such as disk Universally Unique IDentifiers (UUIDs) and Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, as well as policy mechanisms for running system services.
The back-up should (ideally) be made while the system is not running, which means that you need to boot with a rescue system disk. A number of suitable floppy, USB or CD-based system images can be downloaded from the net or, better, included in your distribution's boot options. Make sure that this rescue system supports the type of disks in your target system (SATA/SCSI or IDE).
The not-ideal case is when the system is running in single-user mode (init 1). As some programs are running at this run level, make sure that this will have no adverse effects to your backup.
The glucopy script will get partition information in a form that can be used to restore the system on new disks and will then collect the working system files in one (or more) compressed tar balls.
The sfdisk program is used for getting partition information (-d option). Take a look at sys_partitions.txt after the glucopy.sh script has finished.
In this application it is considered that all Master Boot Record (MBR) information will be overwritten by the partitioning and boot loader programs. If you need a copy of all or parts of the MBR, however, dd is your friend.
The script must be run by the root user, so that all system files can be copied and file attributes preserved. tar's preserve permissions option (-p) is used to that effect.
System directories that contain transient information (e.g. /proc, /sys) are not copied. Directories or individual files containing unwanted information can be excluded using tar's –exclude=/directory/file option.
Important note: For a successful system restoration, a suitable configuration should be present on the back-up volume. Consult the Considerations section.
#!/bin/sh ############################################################## # glucopy.sh # # Creates the /glucopy directory # Copies partition information in sys_partitions.txt # Optionally makes a copy of the MBR in mbr.bin # Copies working GNU/Linux system to .tgz files # # USAGE: # Boot system with a rescue CD or any bootable CD # that supports your type of disks (SATA/SCSI or IDE). # run the back-up script: ./glucopy.sh # # In this example the system is on /dev/sda # /dev/sda1 is a small partition with HW manufacturer utilities # /dev/sda2 has system root (/) -> mounted to /mnt # /dev/sda3 is a spare (blank) partition # /dev/sda4 has home (/home) and space to hold # the information to be copied -> mounted to /mnt2 # # 061116 jp/dm ############################################################## # Change the following to reflect the place where your system root (/) # and the home directories (/home/*) are mounted mkdir /tmp/mnt1 mkdir /tmp/mnt2 mount /dev/sda2 /tmp/mnt1 mount /dev/sda4 /tmp/mnt2 # The directory to hold the system copy is placed on the larger partition mkdir /tmp/mnt2/glucopy # Change to the working directory cd /tmp/mnt2/glucopy # Optionally copy MBR information #dd if=/dev/sda of=mbr.bin bs=512 count=1 # Copy partition information /sbin/sfdisk -d /dev/sda > sys_partitions.txt # Make tarballs, preserving file permissions (default if run as root) tar -C /tmp/mnt1 -cpvzf syscopy.tgz boot bin etc lib media opt root sbin usr var dev # Move up a level cd .. # here we are under the /home directory level # notice that --exclude will exclude anything that matches a _pattern_ # the glucopy directory will still be created in the tarball tar -cpvzf ./glucopy/homecopy.tgz * --exclude=glucopy/* # Copy the backup/restore scripts (here under root /), and the sfdisk program, as well cp /glucopy.sh ./glucopy cp /glurestore.sh ./glucopy cp /sbin/sfdisk ./glucopy # Notify user echo -e “glucopy: finished \a”
A slightly more involved situation is when you have to back up a RAID-based system. Information about preparing such a system may be found in the RAID Preparation section, below. When you boot with your rescue or system disk, the mdadm utility has to be available, in order to start the disk array prior to commencing the back-up operation. The following example command will start array /dev/md2, comprising /dev/sda2 and /dev/sdb2:
# mdadm --auto=yes /dev/md2 /dev/sd[ab]2
Such commands may be included in the backup script, for automatic execution. Verify that the RAID has started, by running
# cat /proc/mdstat
The example glucopy-raid script for backing up both RAID and non-RAID partitions is presented below.
Note that for a successful system restoration, a suitable configuration should be present on the back-up volume. Consult the Considerations section where issues are discussed in more detail.
#!/bin/sh ############################################################## # glucopy-raid.sh # # Creates the /glucopy directory # Copies partition information in sys_partitions.txt # Optionally makes a copy of the MBR in mbr.bin # Copies working GNU/Linux system to .tgz files # # USAGE: # Boot system with a rescue CD or any bootable CD # that supports your type of disks (SATA/SCSI or IDE). # run the back-up script: ./glucopy.sh # # In this example the system is on /dev/sda # /dev/sda1 has boot (/boot) -> mounted to /mnt1 # /dev/sda2 (/dev/md2) has system root (/) -> mounted to /mnt2 # /dev/sda3 has home (/home) and space # to hold the information to be copied -> mounted to /mnt3 # /dev/sda4 is a spare partition # /dev/sdb1 is a copy of /boot # /dev/sdb2 participates in /dev/md2 # /dev/sdb3 participates in /dev/md3 # /dev/sdb4 is a spare partition # 061116 jp/dm # 070503 sg - root user and program availability checks # 091217 dm - raid (md) volumes # # Multiple-device volumes must be started before the script is run # in single-user mode or after booting with a live CD: # # init 1 # mdadm --auto=yes /dev/md2 /dev/sd[ab]2 # mdadm --auto=yes /dev/md3 /dev/sd[ab]3 ############################################################## # Change the following to reflect the place where your system root (/) # and the home directories (/home/*) are mounted # Check that user is root USER=`id -un` if (test $USER != "root");then echo "Error: This script must be executed by root" exit fi # Check availability of programs TAR=`which tar 2>/dev/null` if (test -z "$TAR");then echo "Error: The \"tar\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"tar\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi # The sfdisk program may be available on your boot medium and/or # your boot disk. In the latter case, make sure that the sfdisk # program is compatible with the boot system. # SFDISK=`which sfdisk 2>/dev/null` #SFDISK=`pwd`\/sfdisk 2>/dev/null if (test -z "$SFDISK");then echo "Error: The \"sfdisk\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"sfdisk\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi # The mdadm program may be available on your boot medium and/or # your boot disk. In the latter case, make sure that the mdadm # program is compatible with the boot system. # #MDADM=`which mdadm 2>/dev/null` MDADM=`pwd`\/mdadm if (test -z "$MDADM");then echo "Error: The \"mdadm\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"mdadm\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi # Checkpoint - use the exit command to check parts of your script #exit mkdir /tmp/mnt1 mkdir /tmp/mnt2 mkdir /tmp/mnt3 mount /dev/sda1 /tmp/mnt1 mount /dev/md2 /tmp/mnt2 mount /dev/md3 /tmp/mnt3 # The directory to hold the system copy is placed on the larger (home) partition mkdir /tmp/mnt3/glucopy # Change to the working directory cd /tmp/mnt3/glucopy # Optionally copy MBR information #dd if=/dev/sda of=mbr.bin bs=512 count=1 # Copy partition information "$SFDISK" -d /dev/sda > sfdisk.sda "$SFDISK" -d /dev/sdb > sfdisk.sdb # Make tarballs "$TAR" -C /tmp/mnt1 -cpvzf bootcopy.tgz `find .` "$TAR" -C /tmp/mnt2 -cpvzf syscopy.tgz bin etc lib media opt root sbin usr var dev # Move up a level cd .. # here we are under the /home directory level # notice that --exclude will exclude anything that matches a _pattern_ # the glucopy directory will still be created in the tarball "$TAR" --exclude=glucopy/* -cpvzf ./glucopy/homecopy.tgz * # Copy the backup/restore scripts (in the present working directory), and the sfdisk program cp `pwd`/* ./glucopy cp "$SFDISK" ./glucopy cp "$MDADM" ./glucopy # Notify user echo glucopy: finished
The information in the glucopy directory can be burned onto a CD or DVD using the mkisofs and cdrecord (wodim) or growisofs or by using a GUI front end such as k3b. You can make the medium bootable by including a suitable system image.
The two example scripts below (cdmake, cdburn) will make a CD ISO image in the /tmp directory and burn it to a CD. Or you can use the growisofs command: to burn CD/DVDs e.g. growisofs /dev/hdc <mkisofs options>
Needless to say, the scripts need to be customized for your own equipment.
#-------------------------------------------------------- # Usage: cdmake VOLUME_LABEL DIRECTORY # Will output /tmp/cdimage.iso # if (test -z $1 -o -z $2); then echo Usage: cdmake VOLUME_LABEL TOP_LEVEL_DIRECTORY else mkisofs -V $1 -rational-rock -full-iso9660-filenames \ -iso-level 2 -o /tmp/cdimage.iso $2 fi #-------------------------------------------------------- Example: ./cdmake BACK061203 /home/glucopy
#-------------------------------------------------------- # cdburn cdrecord gracetime=2 -v dev=/dev/hdc -speed=48 -multi -eject driveropts=burnfree /tmp/cdimage.iso #-------------------------------------------------------- Example: ./cdburn
A minimal (or not-so-minimal) system is loaded using a rescue CD/USB/floppy, at which point the restore script is run.
The glurestore script will partition the target disk using information obtained from the original system, will format the desired partitions and will then mount the partitions, restore the data, and make the target disk bootable. A partition re-read (using two methods) will make sure that the partitions will be available prior to formatting.
Note that /proc and /sys directories (which were not backed up) need to be created. The /mnt directory is created, as well.
System restoration may be followed by individualization commands for hard-coded information removal or system serialization.
KEEP YOUR REWRITABLE MEDIA IN A
PLACE OTHER THAN THE COMPUTER BEING RESTORED.
THE BLUE MEANIES ARE LURKING ABOUT.
#!/bin/sh ############################################################## # glurestore.sh # # USAGE: # Boot system with a rescue CD or any bootable medium # that supports your type of disks (SATA/SCSI or IDE). # # Mount the medium containing the backed-up files and # run the restore script: # e.g. mount /dev/hda /mnt # /mnt/glurestore.sh # # In this example the system is on /dev/sda # and the CD/DVD ROM drive is on /dev/hda # There are four primary partitions: # /dev/sda1 contains HW manufacturer utilities and will not be formatted # /dev/sda2 will be formatted using ext3 and will hold the system root (/) # /dev/sda3 will be formatted using ext3 (but will not be used) # /dev/sda4 will be formatted using ext3 and will hold /home # # 061116 jp/dm # 080102 dm - note that a space is needed after the GRUB commands # 120207 dm - reread partitions, remove system-specific information ############################################################## # Change to the restore medium directory cd /mnt # Optionally install Master Boot Record # (uncomment the following two lines) #echo "Installing MBR" #dd if=mbr.bin of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1 # Create Partitions # The sfdisk program used has been copied # on the backup medium. echo "Creating Partition Table" ./sfdisk /dev/sda < sys_partitions.txt # Reread partitions (with a short delay) echo "Rereading partition tables (rescan, sfdisk)" echo 1 > /sys/block/sda/device/rescan sleep 1 "$SFDISK" -R /dev/sda sleep 1 # Format partitions # Change to reflect the number of partitions that need # to be formatted and the type of formatting echo "Formating Partitions" mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda2 mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3 mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda4 # Create directory to mount "/" partition echo "Creating directory to mount / partition " mkdir /mnt2 mount /dev/sda2 /mnt2 # Create /proc /sys and /mnt directories echo "Creating proc, sys and mnt directories " mkdir /mnt2/proc mkdir /mnt2/sys mkdir /mnt2/mnt # Create directory and mount "home" partition echo "Creating directory and mounting home partition " mkdir /mnt2/home mount /dev/sda4 /mnt2/home # Extract files tar -C /mnt2 -xpvzf syscopy.tgz tar -C /mnt2 -xpvzf homecopy.tgz ##################################### # Optional commands may be placed here # to remove hard-coded information or # to add system-specific parameters ##################################### rm -f /mnt2/etc/iftab rm -f /mnt2/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules rm -f /mnt1/var/lib/dbus/machine-id rm -f /mnt2/root/.bash_history rm -f /mnt2/home/__user__/.bash_history # Now make sure that correct boot information # is present in the hard disk's MBR # grub is run in batch mode # hd0,1 is hard disk 0 (first hard disk of any kind), second partition – for this example /sbin/grub --batch <<EOF root (hd0,1) setup (hd0) quit EOF # Notify user echo -e “glurestore: finished! \a” # Reboot and check your new system reboot
The glurestore-raid script in this example will partition the target disk using information obtained from the original system, will start the disk arrays, and will format individual partitions and volumes. The script will then mount the partitions, restore the data, and make the target disks bootable. A partition re-read (using two methods) will make sure that the partitions will be available prior to formatting.
Note that /proc and /sys directories (which were not backed up) need to be created. The /mnt directory is created, as well.
System restoration may be followed by individualization commands for hard-coded information removal or system serialization.
VERY IMPORTANT RAID NOTE:
KEEP YOUR REWRITABLE MEDIA IN A
PLACE OTHER THAN THE COMPUTER BEING RESTORED.
THE BLUE MEANIES ARE LURKING ABOUT; ACCIDENTS WILL HAPPEN AND ARE MORE LIKELY WHEN YOU ARE RESTORING RAID ARRAYS, COMPLETE, OR - MAKER FORBID - WITH MISSING DISKS. IF YOUR USB FLASH DISK OR USB HARD DISK IS INADVERTENTLY ASSIGNED A PARTITION IN THE RANGE OF THE ARRAY BEING RESTORED IT WILL CERTAINLY BE OBLUETERATED (A SAD THING TO HAPPEN).
#!/bin/sh ############################################################## # glurestore-raid.sh # # USAGE: # Boot system with a rescue CD or any bootable medium # that supports your type of disks (SATA/SCSI or IDE). # # Mount the medium containing the backed-up files and # run the restore script: # e.g. mount /dev/hda /mnt # /mnt/glurestore-pclinuxos-raid.sh # # In this example the system is on /dev/sda and /dev/sdb # Two partitions (2 and 3) are in RAID1 (mirror) configuration # There are four primary partitions: # /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1 will hold /boot (non-RAID) # /dev/sda2 and /dev/sdb2 will hold / (/dev/md2) # /dev/sda3 and /dev/sdb3 will hold /home (/dev/md3) # /dev/sda4 and /dev/sdb4 are free (non-RAID) # # Boot (GRUB) information is written on the # Master Boot Records (MBR) of both disks # # 061116 jp/dm # 061223 dm -- EOF correction # 070503 sg -- root user and program availability checks # 071220 dm -- remove hard-coded MAC address files (PCLinuxOS) # 091217 dm -- raid (md) preparation # 120207 dm - reread partitions, remove system-specific information ############################################################## # Check that user is root USER=`id -un` if (test $USER != "root"); then echo "Error: This script must be executed by root" exit fi # Check availability of programs TAR=`which tar 2>/dev/null` if (test -z "$TAR"); then echo "Error: The \"tar\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"tar\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi # The sfdisk program may be available on your boot medium and/or # your boot disk. In the latter case, make sure that the sfdisk # program is compatible with the boot system. # SFDISK=`which sfdisk 2>/dev/null` #SFDISK=`pwd`\/sfdisk 2>/dev/null if (test -z "$SFDISK"); then echo "Error: The \"sfdisk\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"sfdisk\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi # The mdadm program may be available on your boot medium and/or # your boot disk. In the latter case, make sure that the mdadm # program is compatible with the boot system. # #MDADM=`which mdadm 2>/dev/null` MDADM=`pwd`\/mdadm #echo $MDADM if (test -z "$MDADM"); then echo "Error: The \"mdadm\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"mdadm\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi GRUB=`which grub 2>/dev/null` if (test -z "$GRUB"); then echo "Error: The \"grub\" program was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain the program \"grub\"." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi MKEXT2=`which mkfs.ext2 2>/dev/null` MKEXT3=`which mkfs.ext3 2>/dev/null` if [[ -z "$MKEXT2" || -z "$MKEXT3" ]]; then echo "Error: Program \"mkfs.ext2\" or \"mkfs.ext3\" was not found" echo " The live CD you are using does not contain this program." echo " The backup procedure cannot be executed without it." echo " Please use another live CD." exit fi # Checkpoint #exit THIS_DIR=`pwd` # Optionally install Master Boot Record # (uncomment the following two lines) #echo "Installing MBR" #dd if=mbr.bin of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1 # Create Partitions # If both disks have the same partitions # there is no need for a separate sfdisk file. echo "Creating Partition Tables" "$SFDISK" -O "$THIS_DIR/disk_a_info" -f /dev/sda < sfdisk.sda "$SFDISK" -O "$THIS_DIR/disk_b_info" -f /dev/sdb < sfdisk.sdb # Reread partitions (with a short delay) echo "Rereading partition tables (rescan, sfdisk)" echo 1 > /sys/block/sda/device/rescan sleep 1 echo 1 > /sys/block/sdb/device/rescan sleep 1 "$SFDISK" -R /dev/sda sleep 1 "$SFDISK" -R /dev/sdb sleep 1 # Create RAID volumes echo "Creating RAID Volumes" modprobe raid1 "$MDADM" -C /dev/md2 -f -R -l1 -n2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 "$MDADM" -C /dev/md3 -f -R -l1 -n2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 # on a single disk... #"$MDADM" -C /dev/md2 -f -R -l1 -n2 /dev/sda2 missing #"$MDADM" -C /dev/md2 -R -l1 -n2 /dev/sda2 missing #"$MDADM" -C /dev/md3 -R -l1 -n2 /dev/sda3 missing # Checkpoint #exit # Format partitions # Change to reflect the number of partitions that need # to be formatted and the type of formatting echo "Formatting disk 1 boot partition" "$MKEXT2" /dev/sda1 echo "Formatting disk 2 boot partition" "$MKEXT2" /dev/sdb1 echo "Formatting md2" "$MKEXT3" /dev/md2 echo "Formatting md3" "$MKEXT3" /dev/md3 #echo "Formatting disk1 empty partition" #"$MKEXT3" /dev/sda4 #echo "Formatting disk2 empty partition" #"$MKEXT3" /dev/sdb4 # Create directory to mount partitions; start with root (/) directory echo "Creating directory to mount partitions " mkdir /mnt2 mount /dev/md2 /mnt2 # Create /proc /sys and /mnt directories echo "Creating proc, sys and mnt directories " mkdir /mnt2/proc mkdir /mnt2/sys mkdir /mnt2/mnt # Create directory and mount "home" partition echo "Creating directory and mounting home partition " mkdir /mnt2/home mount /dev/md3 /mnt2/home # Create directory and mount "boot" partition echo "Creating directory and mounting boot partition (first disk)" mkdir /mnt2/boot mount /dev/sda1 /mnt2/boot # Extract files echo "Extracting files (root, home, boot1)" "$TAR" -C /mnt2 -xpvzf syscopy.tgz "$TAR" -C /mnt2/home -xpvzf homecopy.tgz "$TAR" -C /mnt2/boot -xpvzf bootcopy.tgz # Mount second boot directory and copy the boot files over echo "Mounting and copying boot partition (second disk)" mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt2/boot echo "Extracting files (boot2)" "$TAR" -C /mnt2/boot -xpvzf bootcopy.tgz ##################################### # Optional commands may be placed here # to remove hard-coded information or # to add system-specific parameters ##################################### rm -f /mnt2/etc/iftab rm -f /mnt2/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules rm -f /mnt1/var/lib/dbus/machine-id rm -f /mnt2/root/.bash_history rm -f /mnt2/home/ats/.bash_history # Now make sure that correct boot information # is present in the hard disk's MBR # grub is run in batch mode # hd0,0 is hard disk 0 (first hard disk of any kind), first partition – for this example "$GRUB" --batch <<EOF root (hd0,0) setup (hd0) quit EOF "$GRUB" --batch <<EOF root (hd1,0) setup (hd1) quit EOF # Notify user echo glurestore: finished! # Reboot, if desirable #reboot
SuSE disks include a RAM-based rescue system. So does the Trinity Rescue Kit, which is completely RAM-based.
Ubuntu, for security reasons, does not have a user named root. Login and execute the command sudo su, providing the default user's password, to gain persistent system administrator rights.
PCLinuxOS has a copy2ram boot option that can be used to free the LiveCD drive. If this does not fit in the available computer memory, try the console option.
Recent GNU/Linux distributions employ the udev (dynamic device management) mechanisms to identify and assign persistent names to network interfaces and hard disk partitions. This is not desirable in a cloning process as different computer hardware are certain to have different MAC addresses and different storage drive UUIDs.
MAC addresses are known to be stored in /etc/iftab, /etc/udev/rules.d/xx-persistent-net.rules (xx is a number), /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethx (x is a number) and similar. Entries may have been made manually (/etc/iftab) or dynamically.
The files containing dynamic information need and can be excluded. This may be done during back-up (e.g. add a pertinent tar --exclude= xxx in glucopy) or the unwanted files may be deleted following restoration. The latter method is used in the glucopy/glurestore variants in the examples discussed above. Note that, as an afterthought, the root and user .bash_history files are also purged. The same can be extended to browser cache files or other transient information.
A more involved process must be followed to eliminate the effects of storage media (e.g. hard disk drive) naming. Recent distributions refer to storage media and partitions by name (type – model – serial number) or by computed UUID. The relevant entries may be found in /dev/disk/by-id and /dev/disk/by-uuid. These symbolic links should be replaced by “real” device node names or the “cloned” system will crash and burn!
The persistent node names propagate to various files of an installed system, notably /etc/fstab (file system table), initrd (the initial RAM-disk image, used by many), and even the bootloader options file, /boot/grub/menu.lst if GRUB is used. In the case of RAID, UUIDs may be used in /etc/mdadm.conf.
The file system table and the GRUB bootloader files are the easiest to fix. Edit the files mentioned above using a plain text editor. Replace names or UUIDs by the corresponding device names.
Fixing the initial RAM disk is more involved. The information is stored inside a file in the /boot directory, usually called initrd-release_version.img and (also usually) pointed to by a symbolic link called initrd.img. This file contains a compressed file system including libraries, modules, and a script that will take care of initial system startup. You may check the contents of the initial RAM disk image by running:
This will result in a listing of the image contents, followed by the contents of the startup script, called init. If this file contains commands with disk names or UUIDs, notably mkrootdev ... or waitdev ..., the initial RAM disk image must be re-generated.
AFTER the /etc/fstab and /boot/grub/menu.lst files have been edited, the initial RAM-disk image may be recreated using the following commands, noting that `uname -r` evaluates to the current kernel release:
# Change to the /boot directory cd /boot # Save the current RAM disk image file cp initrd-`uname -r`.img initrd-`uname -r`.img.original # Generate a new initrd-xxxxxx.img mkinitrd initrd-`uname -r`.img `uname -r`
Check the initrd.img contents again by running lsinitrd initrd.img. If there are still UUID or name references in the init script part there are two options:
1. Fix the mkinitrd script
2. Edit the init script inside the RAM disk image.
The first option is obvious; as we do not want to interfere with distribution goodness, we will take option 2.
# Create a temporary work area in /boot cd /boot mkdir rdtmp cd rdtmp # Get the target ramdisk image and make it look like a gz archive cp ../initrd-`uname -r`.img ./rdtmp.img.gz # Uncompress the image gunzip rdtmp.img.gz # Un-archive the uncompressed image cpio -i < rdtmp.img
This will result in the RAM disk file structure created in /boot/rdtemp. Edit the init file and replace name or UUID references with device node names. Re-archive, re-compress, and properly rename the initial RAM disk image:
# Remove the previous uncompressed image rm -f rdtmp.img # Create a new gzipped initrd archive find . | cpio -o --'format=newc' | gzip > initrd.new # Save the existing image and set the new one in its place cd /boot mv initrd-`uname -r`.img initrd-`uname -r`.img.org cp rdtmp/initrd.new /boot/initrd-`uname -r`.img
That's it. The resulting initrd.img should now be good for both the prototype as well as the cloned systems.
In the process of backing up and restoring computer systems, we have encountered at least two cases of services failing to start due to insufficient user privileges (read wrong group ID - GID) assigned to system services start-up scripts. One of them was the HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) daemon (hald), taking care of real-time hardware changes. The other one was the D-bus message daemon (dbus-daemon).
The ultimate workaround for hald is to set the not-so-well-known --retain-privileges option on the daemon's invocation line. This, for PCLinuxOS may be found in /etc/init.d/haldaemon.
daemon --check $servicename $processname --retain-privileges
For the dbus case, the group ID was wrong (or the Set User ID flag was not set). The commands below fixed this. Note that group IDs are numeric values that change from system to system. When executing such commands (chown, chgrp) keep in mind that the group ID numbers in /etc/group should match the desired group names, as the user ID numbers in /etc/passwd should match the desired user names.
chgrp messagebus /lib/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper chmod u+s /lib/dbus-1/dbus-daemon-launch-helper
The RAID system to be backed-up, has to be prepared somehow. Here are the steps used in preparing the system presented in the RAID back-up and restore scripts, employing two physical disks with three partitions each. The first partition in each disk is formatted separately and used for booting the system, while the other two partitions are used in corresponding multiple-device arrays (mirrored).
The mdadm package is needed – install using synaptic or download individual package and install as follows:
rpm -i mdadm-xxxx-xxxx.rpm
Load RAID1 (mirror) module:
Create RAID arrays:
mdadm -C /dev/md2 -l1 -n2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 mdadm -C /dev/md3 -l1 -n2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3
or (verbose syntax)
mdadm --create /dev/md2 --level raid1 --raid-disks 2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 mdadm --create /dev/md3 --level raid1 --raid-disks 2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3
Verify that the RAID arrays are active:
cat /proc/mdstat (md2: active raid1 sda2 sdb2, md3: active raid1 sda3 sdb3)
Add array information to /etc/mdam.conf:
mdadm --examine --scan >> /etc/mdadm.conf
Edit /etc/mdadm.conf; UUIDs must be replaced with device names for the system to be portable, namely /dev/md2, /dev/md3. The file should read:
DEVICE /dev/sd[ab]2 DEVICE /dev/sd[ab]3 ARRAY /dev/md2 level=raid1 num-devices=2 devices=/dev/sda2,/dev/sdb2 ARRAY /dev/md3 level=raid1 num-devices=2 devices=/dev/sda3,/dev/sdb3
mkfs.ext3 /dev/md2 mkfs.ext3 /dev/md3
Format boot partitions:
mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1 mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdb1
Prepare fstab for booting with /dev/md2 as root:
cd /etc cp fstab fstab.sda2
Edit fstab; change root device to /dev/md2; add the noatime option, if desirable.
Note that if /etc/fstab is not changed, the initrd image that will be prepared will have the wrong information.
/etc/fstab should read:
/dev/md2 / ext3 defaults,noatime 1 1 /dev/sda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 /dev/md3 /home ext3 defaults,noatime 1 2 none /proc proc defaults 0 0 none /dev/pts devpts mode-0620 0 0
The initial RAM-disk image is used on boot, and must include the proper root device name (/dev/md2), the mdadm executable, which may not be present in the system startup disk, and the raid1 kernel module.
Prepare an initrd image including the raid1 module (`uname -r` evaluates to the current kernel-release version):
cd /boot mkinitrd --with=raid1 initrd-`uname -r`-raid.img `uname -r`
Verify that the raid1 module is included, that the root device is /dev/md2 and that the init script contained in the initrd image is free from UUID references, as discussed in the Initial RAM disk section, above:
lsinitrd initrd-`uname -r`-raid.img
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
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A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
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10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.