Copyright (c) 2007 Dimitri Marinakis.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
During my quest for an OS-less desktop to host an application running under GNU/Linux, I came across very helpful Dell representatives who offered me a computer, made to order, on a try-and-buy basis. This computer, a member of the Optiplex 745 n-series family, features 1 Gb memory (two 512Mb modules), a DVD SATA reader/writer and an 80GB SATA disk. FreeDOS beta 8 (Operating System Install CD and Source Code) was included, accompanied by a printed version of the GNU GPL version 2. A DOS-based diagnostic CD was also included. A 17” 1280 x 1024 E178FPc monitor with a tilt base, a light localized USB keyboard with oversized space and modifier keys, a USB mouse and a pair of USB-powered speakers completed the package. The “traditional” PS/2 mouse and keyboard sockets have moved to a card-slot cover blade, along with the second serial port (specific to the requested configuration).
BIOS version: 2.3.1
First impressions: Rather voluminous for a “minitower” (41x19x44, 12kg), typical Dell metalwork, comprehensive diagnostics. No-special tools are needed to access individual components (beware of sharp edges, though). A large fan blows air front-to back through the perforated front and back covers, over the large CPU heatsink; runs quiet at low speed even at relatively high ambient temperatures. Two hard disk drive bays are situated below this air channel; two CD-size bays and a floppy bay may be found above the air channel.
GNU/Linux distributions tried on this machine: Ubuntu 7.04 with the x86_64 smp kernel (a.k.a. amd64) and the latest upgrades for 3D desktops, PCLinuxOS 2007, iloog 7.04 live CD.
If this text looks outdated, maybe it is. Please help keep the record(s) straight.
First release 08-Jul-2007 – tlgu.carmen.gr
Dell™ OptiPlex™ 745 Quick Reference
Dell™ OptiPlex™ 745 Systems User's
Dell™ E178FP Flat Panel Monitor
WDC HDD WD800JD-75MS Specifications and jumper
Intel Q965 data
(http://www.intel.com/design/chipsets/embedded/q965_docs.htm) Relevant Intel chipset information
Intel GMA 3000 information (Graphics Media
Firmware Developer Kit – BIOS
Analog Devices AD1983 data
(http://principe.homelinux.net/) Communication between Xorg, Xgl, and an OpenGL client, through libGL and the GLX Protocol
(http://www.free3d.org/) FPS “benchmark”
(http://docs.kde.org/stable/en/kdebase/kompmgr/kompmgr.pdf) K composite manager
(http://www.beryl-project.org) The Beryl OpenGL accelerated desktop
(http://jonsmirl.googlepages.com/graphics.html) The State of Linux Graphics
(http://dri.freedesktop.org) Direct Rendering Infrastructure
(http://www.mesa3d.org) The Mesa 3D Graphics Library
(http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/accelerated_x) Accelerated X
Kernel recompilation (3D effects need kernels newer than 2.6.18, also newest Mesa and Xorg)
Anton Winter's “Debian kernel recompiling”
Hugues Clouâtre's “Debian HOW-TO: Custom Kernel
Falko Timme's “How To Compile A Kernel - The SuSE
The usual disclaimer about misconfiguring your system beyond repair or oblueterating your work applies: Don't blame it on me. Do one thing at a time. Read and Learn. Write to tlgu, carmen gr, in case this document contains inaccuracies, errors or if you have some information that others can benefit from.
305-Watt supply (L305P) – only SATA power connectors are provided for HDD/CD/DVD drives
Dell 0HR330 featuring an Intel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.20GHz stepping 05
Intel Q965 chipset
Four (4) Serial ATA connectors (two hard drive bays, two optical drive bays) – 82801H (ICH8)
One Parallel port (ECP/EPP/IEEE 1284)
Four (4) 533, 667, or 800 MHz DDR2 SDRAM module sockets. Maximum memory at 533 or 667 MHz: 8 GB. Maximum Memory at 800 MHz: 4 Gb. Installed in the specific machine were two PC2-5300 NT512T64U88B0BY-3C.0717.X2.CN modules
One (1) full-length, full-height, PCI Express x16 slot (for an optional graphics adapter) – 82801 PCI bridge
One full-length, full-height, PCI Express x1
Two (2) full-length, full-height, 32-bit PCI 2.3 (5v) slots
One (1) 3.5-inch externally accessible bay (for an optional floppy diskette drive) a parallel cable / PSU connector is provided
Two (2) 3.5-inch internal bays – plastic carrier for removal and re-installation of HDDs
Two (2) 5.25-inch externally accessible bays (for optical drives)
TSSTcorp DVD+-RW TS-H653A, SATA
WDC WD800JD-75MS, 80 Gb, SATA
Transducer on the motherboard, optional internal speaker
Eight (8+1) USB 2.0 ports: two up front, six at the rear, plus an internal USB receptacle – 82801 USB2 EHCI controller
One (1) Ethernet RJ-45 port
One (1) 9-pin serial port (a 2nd serial port is available using an optional cable/card also hosting two PS/2 ports)
One (1) 25-pin parallel port
VGA monitor port
Line-out (back), line-in/microphone (back), microphone in (front), and headphone-out (front) ports
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 82Q963/Q965 Memory Controller Hub (rev 02) 00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82Q963/Q965 PCI Express Root Port (rev 02) 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 82Q963/Q965 Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 02) 00:02.1 Display controller: Intel Corporation 82Q963/Q965 Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 02) 00:1a.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Contoller #4 (rev 02) 00:1a.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5 (rev 02) 00:1a.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #2 (rev 02) 00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) HD Audio Controller (rev 02) 00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 1 (rev 02) 00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 5 (rev 02) 00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 02) 00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 02) 00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 02) 00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #1 (rev 02) 00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 PCI Bridge (rev f2) 00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82801HB/HR (ICH8/R) LPC Interface Controller (rev 02) 00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) 4 port SATA IDE Controller (rev 02) 00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) SMBus Controller (rev 02) 00:1f.5 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) 2 port SATA IDE Controller (rev 02) 03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme BCM5754 Gigabit Ethernet PCI Express (rev 02)
The audio chip is reported as “AD198x”. ADI1983
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) HD Audio Controller (rev 02)
alsamixer the line output (on the back) is “Front”.
The DVD-ROM drive lacks a cable connecting its audio output to the motherboard input so if you will be playing real CDs, you provide.
The built-in controller is a member of Intel Graphics Media
Accelerator (GMA) X3000 series. The video controller can use up to
256Mb system memory (DVMT – Dynamic Video Memory Technology) and
may support resolutions up to 2048 x 1536. The
Xorg driver is used (see
Monitor information as reported by the Display Data Channel (ddc)
module; this is an excerpt from
LoadModule: "ddc" (II) Reloading /usr/lib/xorg/modules/libddc.so (II) I810(0): VESA VBE DDC supported (II) I810(0): VESA VBE DDC Level 2 (II) I810(0): VESA VBE DDC transfer in appr. 1 sec. (II) I810(0): VESA VBE DDC read successfully (II) I810(0): Manufacturer: DEL Model: a027 Serial#: 999999999 (II) I810(0): Year: 2007 Week: 17 (II) I810(0): EDID Version: 1.3 (II) I810(0): Analog Display Input, Input Voltage Level: 0.700/0.700 V (II) I810(0): Sync: Separate (II) I810(0): Max H-Image Size [cm]: horiz.: 34 vert.: 27 (II) I810(0): Gamma: 2.20 (II) I810(0): DPMS capabilities: StandBy Suspend Off; RGB/Color Display (II) I810(0): Default color space is primary color space (II) I810(0): First detailed timing is preferred mode (II) I810(0): redX: 0.635 redY: 0.342 greenX: 0.292 greenY: 0.610 (II) I810(0): blueX: 0.146 blueY: 0.069 whiteX: 0.312 whiteY: 0.328 (II) I810(0): Supported VESA Video Modes: (II) I810(0): 720x400@70Hz (II) I810(0): 640x480@60Hz (II) I810(0): 640x480@75Hz (II) I810(0): 800x600@60Hz (II) I810(0): 800x600@75Hz (II) I810(0): 1024x768@60Hz (II) I810(0): 1024x768@75Hz (II) I810(0): 1280x1024@75Hz (II) I810(0): Manufacturer's mask: 0 (II) I810(0): Supported Future Video Modes: (II) I810(0): #0: hsize: 1152 vsize 864 refresh: 75 vid: 20337 (II) I810(0): #1: hsize: 1280 vsize 1024 refresh: 60 vid: 32897 (II) I810(0): Supported additional Video Mode: (II) I810(0): clock: 108.0 MHz Image Size: 338 x 270 mm (II) I810(0): h_active: 1280 h_sync: 1328 h_sync_end 1440 h_blank_end 1688 h_border: 0 (II) I810(0): v_active: 1024 v_sync: 1025 v_sync_end 1028 v_blanking: 1066 v_border: 0 (II) I810(0): Serial No: CNXXXXXXXXXX (II) I810(0): Monitor name: DELL E178FP (II) I810(0): Ranges: V min: 56 V max: 75 Hz, H min: 31 H max: 80 kHz, PixClock max 140 MHz (II) I810(0): Will use BIOS call 0x5f05 to set refresh rates for CRTs. (--) I810(0): Maximum space available for video modes: 12288 kByte (II) I810(0): Using detected DDC timings (II) I810(0): HorizSync 31-80 (II) I810(0): VertRefresh 56-75
<6>agpgart: Detected an Intel 965Q Chipset. <6>agpgart: Detected 7676K stolen memory. <6>agpgart: AGP aperture is 256M @ 0xc0000000
The motherboard's IGD (Integrated Graphics Device) is initially
allocated 8Mb memory (stolen from system memory) by the BIOS. Memory
is allocated for 3D effects by the Xorg drivers, depending on
selected options; up to 265Mb for the Q965 video subsystem (see
Use the “bogoframes benchmark” from http://www.free3d.org/ to check your video setup:
> cat /proc/pci | grep VGA || lspci | grep VGA | colrm 1 4 ; cat /proc/cpuinfo | \ > egrep "model name|MHz" ; xdpyinfo | egrep "version:|dimensions|depth of" ; glxinfo | \ > egrep -A2 "direct rendering|OpenGL vendor" ; glxgears & sleep 25 ; killall glxgears cat: /proc/pci: No such file or directory
Which on this system yields (24 bits):
2.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 82Q963/Q965 Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 02) model name : Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.20GHz cpu MHz : 3200.000 model name : Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.20GHz cpu MHz : 3200.000 X.Org version: 7.1.1 dimensions: 1280x1024 pixels (342x271 millimeters) depth of root window: 24 planes libGL warning: 3D driver claims to not support visual 0x5a direct rendering: Yes server glx vendor string: SGI server glx version string: 1.2 -- OpenGL vendor string: Tungsten Graphics, Inc OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI Intel(R) 965Q 4.1.3002 x86/MMX/SSE2 OpenGL version string: 1.4 Mesa 6.5  xxxx libGL warning: 3D driver claims to not support visual 0x5a 5357 frames in 5.0 seconds = 1071.222 FPS 5612 frames in 5.0 seconds = 1122.360 FPS 5611 frames in 5.0 seconds = 1122.096 FPS 5587 frames in 5.0 seconds = 1117.356 FPS
When starting the kernel, a video mode must be provided, to avoid
problems when switching from the graphics Virtual Terminal (e.g. VT
7) to a text-mode Virtual Terminal and back. This may be manifested
by a flashing off-blue or off-white screen. Reportedly this is due
Xorg starting before the virtual terminals have a
chance to initialize, hence (re)storing the wrong mode. The proposed
workaround is to set a compatible graphics video mode on startup:
vga=794 parameter to your kernel
invocation command, which may be found in
/etc/lilo.conf. depending on your boot loader (you
lilo if you edit
grub does not need this extra step)
Consult your kernel “cheatcodes” to select a suitable vga mode for your kernel, if the proposed mode doesn't cut it.
VBERestore option in the Device section of
xorg.conf file (see below) will do its best
to restore the “initial” text video mode.
Section "Files" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/local" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/URW" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/truetype" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/uni:unscaled" FontPath "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/CID" FontPath "/opt/kde3/share/fonts" FontPath "/usr/local/share/fonts" InputDevices "/dev/gpmdata" InputDevices "/dev/input/mice" EndSection Section "ServerFlags" Option "AllowMouseOpenFail" "on" EndSection Section "Module" Load "v4l" Load "i2c" Load "bitmap" Load "ddc" Load "dri" Load "extmod" Load "freetype" Load "glx" Load "int10" Load "type1" Load "vbe" Load "dbe" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Driver "kbd" Identifier "Keyboard" Option "Protocol" "Standard" Option "XkbLayout" "us" Option "XkbModel" "pc104" Option "XkbRules" "xfree86" EndSection Section "InputDevice" Driver "mouse" Identifier "Mouse" Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" Option "Protocol" "explorerps/2" EndSection Section "Monitor" # Commented out values are automagically obtained from the # Display Data Channel (DDC) module # HorizSync 31-80 # VertRefresh 56-75 Identifier "Monitor" ModelName "DELL E178FP" Option "DPMS" VendorName "Plug'n Play" EndSection Section "Screen" # Depth (bits per pixel) can be 16 or 24 for 3D operation # Xglx requires 24 bits # DefaultDepth 16 DefaultDepth 24 SubSection "Display" Depth 16 Modes "1280x1024" "1024x768" "800x600" EndSubSection SubSection "Display" Depth 24 Modes "1280x1024" "1024x768" "800x600" EndSubSection Device "Device" Identifier "Screen" Monitor "Monitor" EndSection Section "Device" VendorName "Intel Corporation" BoardName "Intel 965" Driver "i810" Option "DPMS" Identifier "Device" Option "DRI" Screen 0 # See man i810 Option "XAANoOffscreenPixmaps" # AGPMode can take values from 0 to 8 Option "AGPMode" "4" # VESA Bios Extension (VBE) – save/restore initial text mode # This is necessary to prevent video misconfiguration while switching # virtual terminals (VTs); a matching VGA mode must be set on boot Option "VBERestore" "true" EndSection Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "Layout[all]" InputDevice "Keyboard" "CoreKeyboard" InputDevice "Mouse" "CorePointer" Option "Clone" "off" Option "Xinerama" "off" Screen "Screen" # Use the following option if AIGLX is used Option "AIGLX" "true" EndSection Section "DRI" # Group "video" Mode 0666 EndSection Section "Extensions" Option "Composite" "Enable" EndSection
If you have enabled the “Composite” option in your xorg.conf
file and you start the KDE window manager, you will also start
kompmgr – the KDE composite rendering engine.
This, in turn, will provide translucency, shadows and
Accelerated Indirect GLX (OpenGL Extension to the X Window System)
– an extension which is now incorporated in Xorg. Beryl is a
compositing window manager with an accompanying window decorator
emerald) and a real-time settings manager
Make sure you have the latest
beryl packages installed.
To start beryl, you only need to run
A red jewel icon will appear on your panel. Right-click and select
one of available window managers (
kwin – the KDE
metacity, the GNOME window manager and –
of course –
beryl). On top of the list is the
settings manager, for perusing and changing the various
If you have
beryl-manager, you can try the individual
commands, from a console window:
> beryl --replace &
> emerald --replace &
> beryl-settings &
The first one starts the window manager, the second one starts the window decorator and the third one starts the settings manager. There is also a test mode, which you can use to verify whether the window manager thinks that everything is ok before actually starting it. In a console window type:
> beryl –test
To start beryl if you are in KDE, you must also stop the kwin compositing engine. The following line does it all:
> killall kompmgr &
beryl --replace & emerald --replace & beryl-settings &
If you want to compare notes, use
benchmark plug-in (it is in the
extras tab of
beryl-settings). On my
machine, it has registered up to 156 frames-per-second while idle,
with about 30 fps while the desktop cube is hanging in
“mid-air”. Speed depends on color resolution, AGPMode and other
This computer sports a
Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme
BCM5754 Gigabit Ethernet PCI Express. The automatically
selected driver is
Tigon3 [partno(BCM95754) rev b002 PHY(5787)] (PCI Express) 10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet Device: pci 0x169a SubDevice: pci 0x1015 Revision: 0x02 > ethtool eth0 Settings for eth0: Supported ports: [ MII ] Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full Supports auto-negotiation: Yes Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes Speed: 1000Mb/s Duplex: Full Port: Twisted Pair PHYAD: 1 Transceiver: internal Auto-negotiation: on Supports Wake-on: g Wake-on: d Current message level: 0x000000ff (255) Link detected: yes
ACPI: (supports S0 S1D S3 S4 S5)
If the power saving daemon (
powersaved) is running, you
can put the machine in standby operation or turn it off saving the
current state (suspend to disk – swap).
> powersave -U
will suspend to disk and,
> powersave -m
will set the machine in stand-by. The light next to the power button will be flashing. Pushing the button will (almost) instantly restore the machine to an operational state.
You can also disable and re-enable the second processor (this is for systems equipped with dual-dore processors):
> powersave -D 1 > powersave -E 1
And here is a list of the devices that can wake up the computer:
> cat /proc/acpi/wakeup Device Sleep state Status VBTN 4 * enabled PCI0 5 disabled PCI4 5 disabled PCI2 5 disabled PCI3 5 disabled PCI1 5 disabled PCI5 5 disabled PCI6 5 disabled USB0 3 disabled USB1 3 disabled USB2 3 disabled USB3 3 disabled USB4 3 disabled
sensors-detect should identify the sensor
chip and required driver modules for fan, temperature and voltages,
which can then be selected and displayed using
ksysguard or other. Unfortunately,
no sensors are currently detected on this system [
> sensors-detect > cat /etc/sysconfig/lm_sensors
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I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.